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Dashi (page 65) is essential for Japanese cooking. It is usually a clear, non-oily fish stock used for soups, simmered dishes, salad dressings, and marinades. Dashi provides the subtle umami that is the foundation of this cuisine. Dashi can be based on kelp (kombu), dried bonito (katsuobushi), dried baby sardines (niboshi), dried shiitake mushrooms, or a combination of two or three of the ingredients.
Ponzu is made with yuzu, a kind of citron. Ms. Shimbo says yuzu tastes like a mixture of lemon, lime, and grapefruit. I found yuzu only once and it was expensive and did not look the picture of health; I’ve often found bottled yuzu juice, and it is expensive, though I think it tastes good.
Tama-miso (Miso-and-Egg Sauce)
This sauce is a topping for grilled foods. It’s also the basis for some dressings.